By Ze'ev Maghen

Islam prides itself on being “the faith of facility”. Muslim assets are unanimous in assigning to Judaism the function of counterweight during this regard, announcing it a method of “burdens and shackles” in which the Jews “oppressed their souls”. This neat polarity either fueled, and was once the manufactured from, a desirable reciprocal strategy: whilst that sharî'a was once being created within the unfavorable snapshot of halakha, halakha was once being retroactively re-imagined through Muslim jurists and exegetes because the antipode of sharî'a . even though scholarly reviews of the intertexture of Islam and Judaism abound, few have touched upon the Muslim tradition’s conception and usage of Jewish legislations, and none has performed so extensive. This booklet goals to fill that lacuna and extra our realizing of the age-old embody and grapple among the 2 faiths.

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Another way to phrase this principle that underlies the institution of sunna is attributed to Ibn 'Abbas: nabiyyakum mimman umira an yaqtadi bihi (Qurtubl, 15:147). Al-Baydäwl restores the balance: hukmuhu wa-hukm al-umma wähida illä mä khassahu al-dalil (BaydäwT, Ταfsir, 2: 247). 5 See Qurtubl, 19:29. Both of these are specifically acceptable methods of isti'näs (asking permission to enter or warning tenants of one's presence) required by Q . 2 4 : 2 7 - 9 (see Tabari, 9: 297-9). , Ibn Hanbal, 10:574); given all this, it is at least possible that the intent here is that the Muslims gathered outside had already begun "praying" in imitation of the sounds they heard emanating from their spiritual leader behind the door.

Then the Prophet woke up, and he wanted to pray, but there was no water available (what supplies were left were no doubt reserved for drinking, but milk was the staple beverage anyway). At which point ('Ä'isha concludes) Allah sent down the verse about tayammum (rubbing with sand in place of washing with water - "... if you find not water, then go to clean, high ground and rub your faces and your hands with some of i t . . 5:6]). 2 ° Ultimately, the necklace was found - under 'A'isha's own camel - when the camp pulled up stakes the following morning.

All of this should probably be read with the development of the Jewish evening prayer \ma'ariv\ in mind, which began as an optional rite but became, as a result of increasingly regular performance, mandatory by late Talmudic times). See also Mäwardl, 2:4, where we read that after receiving (privately) the revelation at the outset of al-Muzzammil (Q. " If this means that the Prophet rose nights all year round the way he (or his community) used to do only during Ramadän, then it seems as if qiyäm al-layl was an outgrowth of taräwih.

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