By Dogan Ibrahim

This e-book is perfect for the engineer, technician, hobbyist and pupil who've wisdom of the fundamental rules of PIC microcontrollers and wish to increase extra complex purposes utilizing the 18F series.The structure of the PIC 18FXXX sequence in addition to regular oscillator, reset, reminiscence, and input-output circuits is totally special. After giving an advent to programming in C, the ebook describes the venture improvement cycle in complete, giving info of the method of enhancing, compilation, mistakes dealing with, programming and using particular improvement instruments. the majority of the publication supplies complete information of attempted and demonstrated hands-on initiatives, reminiscent of the 12C BUS, USB BUS, CAN BUS, SPI BUS and real-time working structures.

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2. Identify some applications of microcontrollers around you. 3. Where would you use an EPROM memory? 4. Where would you use a RAM memory? 5. Explain the types of memory usually used in microcontrollers. 6. What is an input-output port? 7. What is an analog-to-digital converter? Give an example of how this converter is used. 8. Explain why a watchdog timer could be useful in a real-time system. 9. What is serial input-output? Where would you use serial communication? 10. Why is the current sink/source capability important in the specification of an output port pin?

12 Converting Octal Numbers into Decimal To convert an octal number into decimal, calculate the sum of the powers of 8 of the number. 15 Convert octal number 158 into decimal. 15 Calculating the sum of the powers of 8 of the number: 158 ¼ 1 Â 81 þ 5 Â 80 ¼ 8þ5 ¼ 13 The decimal number is 1310. 16 Convert octal number 2378 into decimal. 16 Calculating the sum of the powers of 8 of the number: 2378 ¼ 2 Â 82 þ 3 Â 81 þ 7 Â 80 ¼ 128 þ 24 þ 7 ¼ 159 The decimal number is 15910. 13 Converting Decimal Numbers into Octal To convert a decimal number into octal, divide the number repeatedly by 8 and take the remainders.

The 8-bit exponent shows the power of the number. To make the calculations easy, the sign of the exponent is not shown; instead, the excess-128 numbering system is used. Thus, to find the real exponent we have to subtract 127 from the given exponent. For example, if the mantissa is “10000000,” the real value of the mantissa is 128 – 127 ¼ 1. The mantissa is 23 bits wide and represents the increasing negative powers of 2. For example, if we assume that the mantissa is “1110000000000000000000,” the value of this mantissa is calculated as 2À1 þ 2À2 þ 2À3 ¼ 7/8.

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