By Hiroshi Kimura, Kazuo Tsuchiya, Akio Ishiguro, Hartmut Witt

The foundations of version to varied environments haven't but been clarified. additionally, self reliant version continues to be unsolved and a heavily tricky challenge in robotics. it seems that, the difference skill proven via animals and that wanted by way of robots within the genuine international can't be defined or discovered by means of one unmarried functionality in a regulate method and mechanism. that's, version in movement is brought on at each point in a large spectrum from the imperative neural process to the musculoskeletal method. This publication comprises the papers chosen rigorously from the symposium AMAM2003 particularly touching on edition in locomotion from the point of view of robotics and neurophysiology. because of this limit in themes followed, we predict that this ebook will successfully supply strong info for scientists and engineers, that is precious to debate the rules and mechanisms underlying animals' variation lower than unstructured surroundings .

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The outputs of non-spiking neuron are transformed to the excitation with the strength of 1 when above a threshold, otherwise 0. Then they are sent to the corresponding motoneurons. In order to self-organize the walking pattern according to the circumstance, it is necessary to obtain the information on the surroundings and the state of the legs. At the beginning of the stance phase, only the posterior muscle shortens, but at the end of the stance phase the position sensor of the posterior muscle should strongly inhibit the motoneuron of it, activating the motoneuron of the anterior muscle.

In this paper, we construct a coupled nonlinear-oscillator system as the polymorphic network, which can produce various walking pattern by modulating the properties of the composing neurons. Inter-segmental inter-neurons in a thoracic ganglion of locust have been extensively investigated by Laurent and Burrows [10,11]. In thoracic ganglion, this signal is transformed into rhythmic wave by rhythmic neuron corresponding to a spiking inter-neuron in the ganglion. The rhythmic neuron makes direct synaptic connection with nonspiking inter-neuron (NS neuron), which is great important to integrate the information on the states of muscles and inter-segmental pathway.

2003, Adaptive Dynamic Walking of a Quadruped Robot on Irregular Terrain based on Biological Concepts, Int. J. Robotics Res. 22:187-202 17. , Lundberg, A. 1969, An electromyographic analysis of muscular activity in the hindlimb of the cat during unrestrained locomotion. Acta Physiol Scand 75:614-630 18. D. H. Cohen, submitted, Models of the locomotor central pattern generator that achieve coactivation and alternation 19. G. 1996 Contribution of hind limb flexor muscle afferents to the timing of phase transitions in the cat step cycle.

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