By Eliot Deutsch, Ron Bontekoe

This notable quantity deals scholars, academics and basic readers an entire introductory survey of the key non-western philosophical traditions.

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The uniquely Sinic idea of trinity Heaven, Earth, and Humanity provides the ontological grounding for Zhou's philosophical anthropology. According to Zhou, human nature is endowed with humanity, rightness, propriety, wisdom, and faithfulness. And sagehood, as the most authentic expression of humanity, is a source of spiritual creativity which, like Heaven, gives ultimate meaning to human existence. The underlying moral metaphysics, as embodied in Zhang Zai's (1020 1077) Western Inscription, characterizes human beings as filial children of the cosmos: Heaven is my father and Earth is my mother, and even such a small creature as I finds an intimate place in their midst.

1640 1742), the Christian community (estimated at 300,000 in the early part of the eighteenth century) survived in China. An unintended consequence of the Jesuits' China experience was the Chinese intellectual contribution to the Enlightenment in Europe. Through missionary reports, French, British, Italian and German intellectuals became aware of the < previous page page_21 next page > < previous page page_22 next page > Page 22 humanistic splendor of Chinese civilization. Montesquieu, Voltaire, Quesnay, Diderot, the philosophes, the physiocrates, and the Deists were fascinated by the Chinese worldview, cosmological thinking, benevolent despotism, and ethics.

What the hermits proposed was in fact a course of action advocated by virtually all major ethico-religious traditions: to cultivate a spiritual sanctuary outside the lived world here and now. The Christian kingdom of God or the Buddhist "other shore" are exemplifications of this universal transcendental breakthrough. Confucius' < previous page page_12 next page > < previous page page_13 next page > Page 13 existential choice to try to repossess the Way by working through the human community as it was constituted represents an anomaly.

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