By Stephen W. Hawking, Ron Miller, Carl Sagan

Stephen Hawking, the most extraordinary theoretical physicists in heritage, wrote the fashionable vintage a quick historical past of Time to aid nonscientists comprehend the questions being requested via scientists at the present time: the place did the universe come from? How and why did it commence? Will it come to an finish, and if that is so, how? Hawking makes an attempt to bare those questions (and the place we are trying to find solutions) utilizing no less than technical jargon. one of the issues gracefully lined are gravity, black holes, the massive Bang, the character of time, and physicists' look for a grand unifying idea. this is often deep technology; those innovations are so titanic (or so tiny) as to reason vertigo whereas examining, and one can not help yet surprise at Hawking's skill to synthesize this hard topic for individuals now not used to puzzling over such things as trade dimensions. the adventure is unquestionably worthy taking, for, as Hawking says, the present of realizing the universe could be a glimpse of "the brain of God."

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Extra info for A Brief History of Time: From the Big Bang to Black Holes

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As it contracts, the atoms of the gas collide with each other more and more frequently and at greater and greater speeds – the gas heats up. Eventually, the gas will be so hot that when the hydrogen atoms collide they no longer bounce off each other, but instead coalesce to form helium. The heat released in this reaction, which is like a controlled hydrogen bomb explosion, is what makes the star shine. This additional heat also increases the pressure of the gas until it is sufficient to balance the gravitational attraction, and the gas stops contracting.

The first three flavors had been known since the 1960s but the charmed quark was discovered only in 1974, the bottom in 1977, and the top in 1995. Each flavor comes in three “colors,” red, green, and blue. (It should be emphasized that these terms are just labels: quarks are much smaller than the wavelength of visible light and so do not have any color in the normal sense. ) A proton or neutron is made up of three quarks, one of each color. A proton contains two up quarks and one down quark; a neutron contains two down and one up.

Since the structure of molecules and their reactions with each other underlie all of chemistry and biology, quantum mechanics allows us in principle to predict nearly everything we see around us, within the limits set by the uncertainty principle. ) Einstein’s general theory of relativity seems to govern the large-scale structure of the universe. It is what is called a classical theory; that is, it does not take account of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, as it should for consistency with other theories.

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