By Barbara A. West

Taking a principally chronological method, a short background of Australia seems to be at social, cultural, monetary, and political tendencies within the country's lengthy historical past, laying off gentle on its certain and intricate id. starting with the peopling of the continent approximately 60,000 years in the past, the amount examines the early heritage and tradition of the Aboriginals. It maintains with the 1st documented sighting of the landmass via a eu within the seventeenth century, via a dialogue of the colonial interval within the 18th and nineteenth centuries. From the Federation of 1901 to the Liberal executive of John Howard (1998 to 2007) and the hard work executive of John Rudd (2007 present), this new e-book explores Australia's courting to the British Crown, nationwide protection and schooling coverage, the function of game and environmental matters, Aboriginal rights, women's heritage, and homosexual rights

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The First Fleet sailed with a chaplain, the Reverend Richard Johnson, who was “a product of the evangelical revival in England” (Clark 1995, 13), but neither Governor Phillip nor his officer corps had any real belief in the Protestant mission. Unlike the early settlements in the Pacific established by Spain, Portugal, and France, England’s Australian colony was little interested in saving souls. Ecclesiastical leaders from both the Anglican and, after 1791, the Roman Catholic traditions were welcomed in the colony, but only for the purpose of maintaining order among the convicts, if possible.

His mission did push the English, however, to lay claim to the western half of the continent, as they did on Christmas Day, 1826. The Dutch had made a prior claim to that territory, but their long neglect and failure to leave any lasting settlement left it open to the British. Another Frenchman, Hyacinthe de Bougainville, son of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville, was also sent on a political mission to New South Wales when he was directed to spy on the Sydney colony during his time there in mid-1825.

This changed in 1768, when the British, following their victory over France and Spain in the Seven Years’ War in 1763, began thinking about expanding their colonial holdings and their scientific knowledge in the Pacific. James Cook’s first journey to New Holland in 1770 was motivated by these twin ambitions. His publicly stated task, given by the Royal Society, was to be in Tahiti on June 3, 1769, to observe the transit of Venus across the Sun, which previous British teams had failed to do during the transit of 1761.

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